Growing things connect us with Nature. Over the years, we have expanded our fruit, vegetable and flower gardens and added a small orchard. In the process, we have engaged many campers who seem to enjoy the simple but purposive process of tilling, sewing, weeding, tending and harvesting.
While gardening has been recognized as therapeutic since ancient times, it was, Dr. Benjamin Rush, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and recognized as the “Father of American Psychiatry,” was first to document the positive effect working in the garden had on individuals in the 19th Century.1 Benefits from gardening and formal horticulture therapy are many. The American Horticultural Therapy Association lists 27 distinct benefits.2 The book Gardening for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders and Special Educational Needs lists others.3 Additional studies are equally encouraging.4 5 6 7 8 9
We have a well-established garden at Camp Krem, consisting of seven large raised beds growing flowers, herbs, fruit and vegetables. In addition we have a newly established orchard, courtesy of Bob Mason, our wonderful neighbor who has been honored by both Santa Cruz county and the San Andreas Regional Center for his volunteer work.
Our campers plant, weed, water, and tend these gardens and harvest our modest produce with great satisfaction.Herbs, strawberries and vegetables find their way into our kitchen and our meals during our 12 week summer camp. Surplus herbs are dried and packaged for gifts as one of our handicraft activities, a program we intend to expand. Our raised beds are especially beneficial for Campers in wheelchairs.
Thus far, our garden activities are ad hoc. With consulting help from Natasha Etherington, the American Horticultural Therapy Association and hands-on training from one or more of their certified therapists, we propose to extend our existing informal program to provide systematic horticultural therapy to our campers. Our own Program Director, Christina Krem, will be directly involved. She grew up on a New Zealand farm with large and productive gardens and has developed and supervises our existing gardening program at Camp.
Benefits of Gardening
- Cognitive Benefits
- Enhance cognitive functioning (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989; Cimprich, 1993; Herzog, Black, Fountaine & Knotts, 1997)
- Improve concentration (Wells, 2000; Taylor et al., 2001)
- Stimulate memory (Namazi & Haynes, 1994).
- Improve goal achievement (Willets & Sperling, 1983).
- Improve attentional capacity (Hartig, Mang & Evans, 1991; Ulrich et al., 1991; Ulrich & Parsons 1992; Ulrich, 1999; Taylor et al., 2001)
- Psychological Benefits
- Improve quality of life (Willets & Sperling, 1983; Waliczek et al., 1996)
- Increase self-esteem (Moore, 1989; Blair et al., 1991; Smith & Aldous, 1994; Feenstra et al., 1999; Pothukuchi & Bickes, 2001)
- Improve sense of well-being (Relf et al.1992; Ulrich & Parsons, 1992; Galindo & Rodrieguez, 2000; Kaplan, 2001; Jarrott, Kwack & Relf, 2002; Barnicle & Stoelzle Midden 2003; Hartig, 2003)
- Reduce stress (Ulrich & Parsons, 1992; Whitehouse et al., 2001; Rodiek, 2002)
- Improve mood (Wichrowski, Whiteson, Haas, Mola & Rey, 2005; Whitehouse et al., 2001)
- Decrease anxiety (Mooney & Milstein, 1994)
- Alleviate depression (Relf, 1978; Mooney & Milstein, 1994; Cooper Marcus & Barnes, 1999)
- Increase sense of control (Relf et al., 1992)
- Improve sense of personal worth (Smith & Aldous, 1994)
- Increase feelings of calm and relaxation (Moore, 1989; Relf et al., 1992)
- Increase sense of stability (Blair et al., 1991; Feenstra et al., 1999; Pothukuchi & Bickes, 2001)
- Improve personal satisfaction (Blair et al., 1991; Smith & Aldous, 1994; Feenstra et al., 1999; Pothukuchi & Bickes, 2001)
- Increase sense of pride and accomplishment (Hill & Relf, 1982; Matsuo, 1995)
- Social Benefits
- Improve social integration (Kweon, Sullivan & Wiley, 1998)
- Increase social interaction (Langer & Rodin, 1976; Moore, 1989; Perrins-Margalis, Rugletic, Schepis, Stepanski, & Walsh 2000).
- Provide for healthier patterns of social functioning (Langer & Rodin, 1976; Kuo, Barcaicoa & Sullivan, 1998)
- Improved group cohesiveness (Bunn, 1986)
- Physical Benefits
- Improve immune response (Hartig, Mang & Evans, 1991; Ulrich et al., 1991; Ulrich & Parsons 1992; Ulrich, 1999)
- Decrease stress (Rodiek, 2002)
- Decrease heart rate (Wichrowski, Whiteson, Haas, Mola & Rey, 2005)
- Promote physical health (Ulrich & Parsons, 1992; Kweon, Sullivan & Wiley, 1998; Cooper Marcus & Barnes, 1999; Armstrong, 2000; Rodiek, 2002)
- Improve fine and gross motor skills and eye-hand coordination (Moore, 1989)
1 American Horticultural Therapy Association at http://ahta.org/horticultural-therapy
2 Benefits of Horticultural Therapy
3 Etherington, Natasha Gardening for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders and Special Educational Needs: Engaging With Nature to Combat Anxiety, Promote Sensory Integration and Build Social Skills, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London and Philadelphia (2012)
5 Söderback, Ingrid, Söderström, Marianne and Schälander, Elisabeth, “Horticultural therapy: the ‘healing garden’ and gardening in rehabilitation measures at Danderyd hospital rehabilitation clinic”, Sweden, Vol. 7, No. 4 , Pages 245-260 (2004) reports on horticultural therapy with 46 brain injured individuals and concludes that the therapy “mediates emotional, cognitive and/or sensory motor functional improvement, increased social participation, health, well-being and life satisfaction.” Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13638490410001711416
6 Scollon, Richard, Garden Training for Autistic Children in South Florida at http://voices.yahoo.com/garden-training-autistic-children-south-florida-7834728.html?cat=70 “The real miracle however is the effect The Garden at Eden has on the children. They learn what makes things grow, how to care for farm equipment and even how to sell their produce at the local vegetable market. The skills this experience provides for them are priceless and perhaps not available in any other venue.” More at Eden Autism Service’s website: http://www.edenflorida.org/
7 Green, Samantha, “Horticulture Therapy: Using Flowers and Plants To Help Autistic Children”, at Pro Flowers website, http://www.proflowers.com/guide/horticulture-therapy-flowers-and-plants-help-autistic-children
8 Green, op. cit.
9 Macalester College, Department of Psychology at http://www.macalester.edu/psychology/whathap/ubnrp/autismwebpage03/Autism/Horticulture.htm